Networking is a central component of every Kubernetes deployment. Understanding the networking model will allow users to run, monitor, and troubleshoot applications efficiently. The networking attributes essentially help the various Kubernetes components in communicating with each other and with other applications. Before getting into the details, let us have a look at what the basics of Kubernetes are.
Kubernetes, fondly known as k8s, is an open source container orchestration system that helps in the automation of application deployment, scaling, & management across a machine cluster. It manages containerized workloads and has a vast, fast-growing ecosystem.
Kubernetes is a leading player in container technology. In fact, the use of Kubernetes in production environments is seeing a rapid rise - 83% in 2020, compared to 78% just a year ago. The Kubernetes ecosystem is also constantly evolving, with 382 companies and 2,464 individuals contributing to making the open source offering better. To know Kubernetes better, you must first understand its major components.
Important Units of Kubernetes
Kubernetes, as a container orchestration platform, is built from a few core concepts merged to form greater functionalities. They are:
API Server - the essential function is to expose the Kubernetes API, and the primary implementation is kube-apiserver. The implementation is designed to scale horizontally by deploying more instances. The system allows running several instances and thereby balancing traffic between the instances.
Controllers - the core abstraction layer used in building Kubernetes. When the user declares the API server's desired state, controllers make sure that the current and desired states match. They work on a loop, ensuring the desired state is maintained.
Pods - the smallest building block within a Kubernetes cluster, able to build applications. Each pod has a unique IP address, and its contents are always run in a shared manner.
Nodes - the machines that operate/run the Kubernetes cluster. It can be a virtual machine (VM) or a physical machine. Nodes are managed by control planes and include services that are needed to run pods.
Networking Methods in Kubernetes
Kubernetes was built with the purpose of running distributed systems across machine clusters. The very nature of these systems makes networking a crucial component of Kubernetes deployments, If you understand the Kubernetes networking model correctly, it will allow you to run, monitor, and troubleshoot applications efficiently.
Kubernetes has specific choices and requirements on how networking happens between the units. It allows communication between pods and among pods and nodes without using any Network Address Translation (NAT). Another feature is that the individual pods see their own IP address the same as the other pods in the cluster. The major networking methods used by Kubernetes components are:
- Container-to-container communication
- Pod-to-pod communication
- Pod-to-service communication
- Internet-to-service communication
Ensuring Stable Container Environments
Kubernetes is evolving in terms of networking practices and better container orchestration. VEXXHOST is Kubernetes certified and offers fully managed deployments with seamless integration, constant monitoring, and security. Additionally, our cloud services are based on OpenStack, making the environments free from licensing fees or vendor lock-ins. For many of our clients, private clouds are the preferred choice because of their highly scalable and secure nature.
Speaking of private clouds, you can now run on a fully agile and customized cloud from VEXXHOST, with no licensing fees and smooth 2-week migration. In fact, we're ready to put our money where our mouth is. We're so confident in being able to save you at least 20% or more on your current cloud infrastructure expenditure that if proven wrong- we'll give you $1,000 credit to our public cloud.
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